he who studies evil is studied by evil This is a topic that many people are looking for. voteyesons.org is a channel providing useful information about learning, life, digital marketing and online courses …. it will help you have an overview and solid multi-faceted knowledge . Today, voteyesons.org would like to introduce to you The Problem of Evil: Crash Course Philosophy #13. Following along are instructions in the video below:
Course philosophy is brought to you by squarespace squarespace share your passion with the world world why is the sky blue which came first orange the color or orange. The and why is c3po afraid of everything like who decided it was a good idea to teach a droid to experience fear. There are some questions that we ask ourselves either as kids or adults or both.
Theyre questions about weird everyday things and theyre weird because most of us dont know the answers to them offhand. But most of the time those questions turn out to be pretty answerable like for the ones. I just mentioned the short answers are because of the way photons interact with the molecules in the atmosphere.
The fruit and uhcause. Thats what george lucas. Wanted maybe because 3pos a protocol droid and they need to be able to relate to humans.
Though he could stand to turn his fear settings down a notch. Now as you know philosophers have a soft spot for questions that can never be answered. Most of the time these puzzles make for great thought experiments tests of our skills in logic and argument.
But there are some questions whose very lack of an answer can be downright troubling. Unlike. The occasional fluke of physics or bit of star wars trivia.
Theres a part of us that really wants or even needs to have an answer to these things for the past month or so weve been exploring the philosophy of religion and weve been doing it mainly from a theistic perspective looking into arguments that justify belief in god. But one of the most persistent challenges to gods existence is also the root of one of the most asked. But least answerable questions that we as thinking beings face.
Why is there evil theme music evil comes in many forms and likewise for philosophers poses. Many problems especially vis a vis the existence of god first theres whats known as the logical problem of evil like all rational people theists cant help. But acknowledge that the world is full of evil and here were understanding evil to be all manner of bad stuff like not just hitler or darth vader or moriarty.
Its everything thats in the vast spectrum of badness from stubbed toes to plagues and everything in between theists and atheists both agree that evil exists in this way. But they disagree about the next part many theists believe in an omniscient omnipotent omnibenevolent god. But atheists argue that this creates a contradiction a set of beliefs that cant all be true at the same time because evil is bad right whether its stubbed toes or genocide.
Or paper cuts or epidemics. So if theres really an all knowing god out there he knows about all the evil. He might even know about it before it happens and if hes all powerful he could stop it and if hes all good then he would want to stop it.
And yet he doesnt the evil continues. Philosophically rational. People shouldnt hold inconsistent beliefs.
So atheists argue that youre going to have to give something up and the thing to give up is god some theists. However take a different route.
They choose to give up one or more divine attributes. They argue that maybe god isnt powerful enough to stop evil or maybe. Hes not knowledgeable enough to know about it or maybe.
Hes not even good enough to care about stopping it that might sound weird to some of you. But if youve ever heard someone say that god is envious or petty or jealous. Thats basically what theyre doing theyre acknowledging the possibility that god is not actually good if youve ever checked out the old testament.
There is a god. There who has some anger issues one whos not at all opposed to wiping out entire populations. Just because of some bad behavior still despite this scriptural evidence.
Many theists are committed to gods omni attributes and are thus stuck with a problem they have to resolve the logical problem of evil and find some way to explain why god would allow evil into the world and if you can do that then you are presenting. What is known as a theodicy. A theodicy is an attempt to show that the existence of evil doesnt rule out the possibility of gods existence yes.
This is such a big deal that theres a word for it and the most popular theodicy is called the free will defense. This argument holds that god maximized the goodness in the world by creating free beings and being free means that we have the choice to do evil things. A choice that some of us exercise.
This theodicy says that god doesnt create evil. But evil cant be avoided without depriving us of our freedom and a world. Without freedom would be a worse place overall.
This explanation preserves gods goodness because he created the best possible world and also preserves his omnipotence and omniscience because. Although he does know about evil and could stop it he has a good reason not to to ensure our freedom. The problem is the free will defense.
Really only really addresses whats known as moral evil or the evil committed on purpose by humans now were certainly responsible for a lot of bad stuff. But you cant blame us for everything we cant be held responsible for the fact that the plates of the earth sometimes shift causing destructive earthquakes or that a storm might knock a tree over that falls onto someones house this type of evil the stuff were not responsible for is called natural evil and the free will defense cant resolve natural evil religion is one of those philosophical issues that can make it hard for us to consider anything objectively. Thats where fiction comes in handy.
Because fictional stories can let us see how hypothetical people deal with hypothetical situations. And with that in mind. Lets go to the thought bubble for some flash philosophy.
Lets consider the case of ivan. A good russian who decides to break up with god in the novel. The brothers karamozov 19th century russian writer fyodor dostoevsky presents us with ivan.
A man who claims to believe in god. But ivan finds the fact that god allows evil to exist to be so unforgivable that he decides worshipping such a god would be just unconscionable ivan goes so far as to declare that he is returning his ticket to heaven.
If the same god who allows evil particularly the suffering and death of children is also saving a cozy place in paradise for ivan. Well. Ivan wants nothing to do with it so his way out of the problem of evil is to deny.
Gods goodness and to conclude that a bad god is not only unworthy of his worship. Hes also not someone ivan wants to spend eternity with its like the ultimate un friending now some readers have found ivans decision to be noble and full of integrity after all if you really think god is letting all of this bad stuff happen. Why would you want to be on his team.
But other people think ivan is being irrational why condemn yourself to eternity in hell on principle for theists. Its another question that doesnt have an easy answer thanks thought bubble now unlike ivan. A lot of people arent willing to give up their ticket to heaven so they need to work on a way to keeping believing in and worshipping god even though evil is still a thing one way to do that is to argue that good cant exist without its opposite.
The idea here is that you cant understand the concept of pleasure without pain. We dont know what it feels like to be warm. If we havent been cold.
We cant understand the goodness of filling our bellies if weve never been hungry. But theres also another way though it involves a little more work on your part 20th century english philosopher of religion. John hick offered whats known as the soul making theodicy.
Unlike. The traditional view. That god created a perfect world which we ruined through our own poor choices.
Hick argued that god deliberately creates us unfinished and our earthly lives are designed to toughen us up in a sense kinda like boot camp. The harshness of life hick. Said gives us a robust texture and character that wouldnt be possible without an imperfect world hick.
Said that were not just gods little pets. And hes not our benevolent owner whose sole job is to keep us in a safe. Comfortable environment instead.
He wants to build us to train us into a particular kind of being so we need an environment. Thats suited to the sort of growth that he wants the sort that this world makes possible a lot of people find these and other theodicies to be pretty compelling. However.
The problem of evil actually goes a step deeper what weve been talking about so far is the logical problem of evil this problem can be resolved if we can explain why theres evil. But theres also the evidential problem of evil this problem points out that we might be able to explain why evil exists. But we still cant explain why theres so much evil in the world for instance.
Lets say that its true that we really do need evil in order to understand goodness in that case. Why cant we understand the contrast through some sort of low level evil.
Like paper cuts and head colds and having to work straight through our lunch hour every now and then i mean slow painful deaths from cancer and city destroying hurricanes. They dont really add anything valuable to our understanding of goodness. Do they if god were truly good and if a negative contrast were really needed in order for us to understand the goodness of the world.
Then why wouldnt he give us just the very minimum dosage of necessary to achieve that goal a counterargument might suggest that theres always a good that corresponds to and is proportionate to any evil. But empirically such goodness is really hard to find what good for example could possibly correspond to the horrors of a genocide in cases like this hicks soul making doesnt seem to cut. It you cant really argue that whatever doesnt kill us makes us stronger.
Because sometimes evil. Does kill us a lot of us. And sometimes it kills us before.
We have a chance to grow and learn from the suffering. Weve endured despite these and other philosophical sticking points. A lot of people have found a theodicy that satisfies them one that they believe reconciles the apparent evil in the world.
With gods existence others find all of these theodicies to be flawed and they reject gods omni nature. Preserving their belief in god by finding him to be less than perfectly powerful or knowledgeable or good still others are convinced that the evil in the world is simply incompatible with the existence of a god or at least any god worth worshipping. Wherever you end up this is a problem that needs to be grappled with and youll probably be thinking about it long after this lesson has ended after all today.
We have considered the biggest problem in theism. The problem of evil. Weve thought about different theodicies or ways that we might reconcile the existence of evil and the existence of god and weve explored whether those responses are sufficient next time.
Well consider what kinds of justification. We need to have for our religious beliefs. This episode of crash course philosophy is made possible by squarespace squarespace is a way to create a website blog or online store for you and your ideas squarespace features a user friendly interface custom templates and 24.
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