to form a stable ion, will magnesium gain or lose electrons? how many electrons? This is a topic that many people are looking for. voteyesons.org is a channel providing useful information about learning, life, digital marketing and online courses …. it will help you have an overview and solid multi-faceted knowledge . Today, voteyesons.org would like to introduce to you Valence Electrons – Gaining and Losing Electrons. Following along are instructions in the video below:
When were trying to determine how ions are made from the periodic table. We we do need to take a look at this line right here and im to drawn this in and then you cant really see it. And its invisibly.
There this is called the stair step line or you can pretty much call it anything you want. But this is the line that determines. This is the line that determines if its a metal or a nonmetal excuse.
Me. Im having a hard time ending it. Where its supposed to and it was the end right there and all of the elements that are to the left of this line.
Okay are considered metals and all of the ones that are to the right of the line are considered nonmetals. So now why do you ask is it important to know whether its a metal or a nonmetal and thats a great question now some of you may know that elements that touch this stair step line are called metalloids and there is that third category so theres metals non metals and metalloids and boron and germanium and antimony and eliam and polonium those are all metalloids and for right now were going to just just disregard metalloids right now were primarily talking about metals and nonmetals and it is important to know whether an element is a metal or nonmetal and the reason for that is based on whether or not it loses electrons or it gains electrons. So lets discuss here.
Whats happening. If an element is a metal or a nonmetal well if its a metal. It tends to lose electrons and and if its a nonmetal.
It tends to gain electrons okay so metals lose electrons and nonmetals gain electrons. So. Lets take a look at group one a the alkali metals.
Okay and here we have group 1a. The alkali metals and if you recall as i said. Earlier group 1a.
Only has one valence electron well everybody on the periodic table wants to have the same number of valence electrons as the noble gases well these guys have one and so let me show you what hydrogen looks like here is the nucleus of hydrogen and in its first energy level. Where the electrons are stored it has one electron. So as you can see hydrogen has one valence electron well.
Heres lithium. Okay. Heres a picture of lithium move it out of the way.
And as you can see here in the center. There are three protons four neutrons in the first ring in the first energy level.
Theres two but look on the outside the outside electrons are called the valence electrons. And theres only one and here is sodium take a look there look on the outside. And youll see that there is one electron on the outer ring.
Okay. And the same is the case for potassium rubidium. Cesium and francium.
They all have one valence electron in their outer ring. Thats why theyre in group 1a that one means one valence electron. But theyre all metals.
So theyre going to lose electrons and the electron that theyre going to lose is theyre going to lose the outside valence electron and when they do that that gives them a stable configuration. Okay so when sodium loses that one outside valence electron. It has these inner ones here to keep it stable now hydrogen.
Really doesnt want to lose one. The reason hydrogen is put into that group is because it has one valence electron. But hydrogen typically wants to gain one to be like helium when it gains one it has two outside electrons just like helium and causes it to be stable.
But everybody else wants to lose was one hydrogen is the only exception he actually wants to gain one so this guy right here wants to gain one its to gain one. But all of these right here these guys all want to lose one. And were talking gaining one electron and losing one electron.
Okay. So lets talk about what happens. When the element loses an electron.
So lets consider the group 1a again and lets go with i like to use my personal favorite. I like to use sodium so lets just talk about sodium and were talking about na here. And it has one valence electron and im going to indicate that by putting a blue dot here on the outside case.
Most of the time. Chemists are only concerned with using valence electrons cuz valence electrons again are responsible for chemical reactions and chemical bonding okay so this valence electron sodium wants to lose it so if we look at a neutral. Sodium atom.
Here. A neutral sodium atom.
And you know here atomic number eleven means. It has 11 protons. Okay and the atomic mass is roughly 23.
So how many neutrons does it have 11 plus neutrons equals 23. Well 11 plus 11 plus. 12 equals.
23. So it has 12 neutrons okay and electrons in a neutral atom. Its also going to have 11 electrons.
But remember sodium wants to lose this electron. So this electron is actually going to get lost. And its going to go somewhere specific and ill describe where its going to go in a bit.
But its going to be lost and when it loses an electron right here this number is no longer. 11. This number is now 10.
Okay and we have 11 positive okay and we have ten negatives so 11 positives and 10 negatives. And that gives me my overall charge. If i look here.
This positive is bigger than the negative. So my answer is actually a 1 positive. So sodium when it loses its electron.
It actually has a positive charge and so we indicate that by writing the symbol of the element and how many its positive and we dont have to write the number 1. We just assume that when theres a plus. There that it means 1 plus.
And so. Sodium ion is this symbol right here and a plus indicating that its lost 1 electron. And that is the same for all the elements there so potassium ion it wants to lose one electron lithium ion it wants to lose one electron rubidium ion it wants to lose one electron.
So theyre all indicated with their chemical symbol and a plus indicating that they have lost one electron. So now lets take a look at the alkaline earth metals and this is group 2 a alkaline earth metals so the alkaline earth metals these are group 2a they all have two valence electrons okay they all have two valence electrons okay two electrons on their outer energy or their outer shell and they are a metal okay.
Im going to get a bit theyre a metal and they lose electrons okay. They want to give away their electrons to somebody that wants to take them so. This is group two alkaline metals to mens electrons and they lose electrons and the same thing goes for group 3a.
You know 3a has three valence electrons. Okay and they lose electrons as well and then group 4a has four valence electrons. Im just going to do tick marks.
There they can lose or gain okay depending on who they will form a bond with they can lose or gain. Group 5a has five valence electrons. These elements only gain electrons.
Okay. 6a has six valence electrons and they also only gain electrons 7a. The halogen group has seven valence electrons and again they only gain and the fifth and or the last and final group is the 8a which is the noble gases.
They have eight valence electrons. They do nothing they do not lose or gain. Electrons at all they are what i like to call the mary poppins of the periodic table theyre practically perfect in every way they dont gain.
They dont lose they dont readily uh bond with other elements. They dont go through violent chemical reactions. Nothing they are stable and every other element on the periodic table wants to be stable like them and the only way that those elements can be stable like the noble gases is by gaining or losing electrons and so that is what all elements on the periodic try to do is gain that stability by gaining and losing electrons now how many they lose is based on what group theyre in they have two valence electrons like up here the alkaline earth metals theyre going to lose two electrons down here group 3a.
3 valence. Theyre going to lose. 3.
Electrons. Because they want to have 8 in their outer energy level. They want to get rid of their valence.
They either want to have no valence electrons or full valence electrons. So 4a is either going to lose all four valence electrons or its going to gain 4. So they either can lose.
4 electrons or gain 4 electrons these guys lose. 3 electrons these guys lose two okay group 5a.
Theyre going to gain electrons. They want to have 8. So they have 5 theyre going to gain 3 electrons group.
6. Is going to gain two electrons group. 7.
Is going to gain one electron okay and back there at group one just to reiterate. We covered that on the previous slide. Remember the alkali metals.
They have one valence electron okay and they also lose one electron. So lets recap a little bit about valence electrons in the periodic table. Now.
Ive got this a little group here that shows the valence electrons of the periodic table. If we take a look here you can see that everything that is in group 1a. This is 1a right here and thats the alkali metals and if you take a look there every element.
Thats in there hydrogen. All the way down to francium those have one valence electron group to a alkaline earth metal have two valence electrons. Were going to skip these transition metals here and theres a reason were going to skip them for right now.
Theyre valence electrons. A and how much they give up for forming bonds is quite different than the other elements. Theres not really a fixed formula for them so were going to kind of skip them for now moving on to 3a.
Which is the boron group. Weve got three valence electrons followed by 4a. Which is the carbon group four valence electrons 5a.
The nitrogen group five valence electrons 6a. The oxygen group six valence electrons and 7a the halogens seven valence electrons followed by 8a with the noble gases that have eight valence electrons with the exception of this guy right here. This is helium ok and helium is the only one that is in the noble gases that doesnt have eight valence electrons.
It only has two so thats a recap of valence electrons. How to determine how many valence electrons. Each element has based on looking at the periodic table.
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